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 Cannikin was detonated

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PostSubject: Cannikin was detonated   March 11th 2011, 12:05 am

A few days after the Milrow test, the Don't Make A Wave Committee was organized at a meeting in Vancouver. On the agenda was whether to fight another blast at the island, or whether to expand their efforts to fight all perceived threats against the environment. As he was leaving, one man gave the traditional farewell of the peace-activist movement, "Peace." "Make it a green peace." replied another member. The Committee would later become Greenpeace.[27]

The Committee's name referred to predictions made by a Vancouver journalist named Bob Hunter, later to become Greenpeace member 000. He wrote that the test would cause earthquakes and a tsunami.[28] The AEC considered the likelihood of the test triggering a severe earthquake "very unlikely", unless one was already imminent on a nearby fault, and considered a tsunami "even more unlikely".[14]

Others disagreed. Russell Train, then Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, argued that "experience with Milrow ... does not provide a sure basis for extrapolation. In the highly nonlinear phenomena involved in earthquake generation, there may be a threshold value of the strain that must be exceeded prior to initiation of a large earthquake. ... The underground explosion could serve as the first domino of the row of dominoes leading to a major earthquake. ... as in the case of earthquakes it is not possible at this time to assess quantitatively the probability of a tsunami following the explosion."[28]
Film stills from the Cannikin test show the effects on the surface of the 5-megaton (21 PJ) detonation below, equivalent to a 7.0 earthquake.

In July 1971, a group called the Committee for Nuclear Responsibility filed suit against the AEC, asking the court to stop the test.[29] The suit was unsuccessful, with the Supreme Court denying the injunction by 4 votes to 3,[30] and Richard Nixon personally authorized the $200 million test, in spite of objections from Japan, Peru, and Sweden.[31] The Don't Make A Wave Committee chartered a boat, in which they had intended to sail to the island in protest, but due to weather conditions they were unable to reach their destination.[27]
[edit] Cannikin tested

Cannikin was detonated on November 6, 1971, as the thirteenth test of the Operation Grommet (19711972) underground nuclear test series. The announced yield was "less than five" megatons (21 PJ) the largest underground nuclear test in US history.[21] (Estimates for the precise yield range from 4.4[32] to 5.2[33] megatons or 18 to 22 PJ). The ground lifted 20 feet (6 m), caused by an explosive force equivalent almost 400 times the power of the Hiroshima bomb.[34] Subsidence and faulting at the site created a new lake, over a mile wide.[3] The explosion caused a seismic shock of 7.0 on the Richter scale, causing rockfalls and turf slides of a total of 35,000 square feet (3,300 m2).[21] Though earthquakes and tsunamis predicted by environmentalists did not occur,[30] a number of small tectonic events did occur in the following weeks, (some registering as high as 4.0 on the richter scale) thought to be due to the interaction of the explosion with local tectonic stresses.[35]

According to wildlife surveys following the Cannikin event by the University of Alaska Fairbanks, 7002,000 sea otters were killed by overpressures in the Bering Sea as a direct result of the explosion. This survey showed that number of sea otters endangered by the blast was far greater than the Atomic Energy Commission had predicted.cheap hotels Sydney
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